Termite eggs                Ternite nymph             Termite king & Queen


  Termite worker              Termite in action            Termite damage



Termites do not live alone or singly. They live in colonies and when they infest the house it is in form of a colony. The termites are well organized similarly to a bee hive or an ant's nest.

Regular Inspection

It is a good idea to have regular inspection of your home or garden carried out at least annually. It is better still to carry it every few months, so that you catch a colony in its infancy.

Protecting Your Home/Garden from Termites

If there are no termites in your home/garden you are a lucky person. Even under these favourable circumstances you still have to undertake some precautions to prevent an infestation.

There are a few natural or the so called home remedies like pouring hot water or kerosene oil on the infected area. This may kill a few of them but you will not be able to eliminate or prevent further infestation. The only permanent solution is to use an exterminator to get rid of it by using liquid terminators.

Because of this fact you have to deal with their termination in a different manner because it is not just a matter of killing a bunch of them. You have to completely kill the total colony and only then will the infestation will end.

The available method is the use of liquid chemicals (Pesticides). The two most important types are the repellents and the terminators are:


Repellent termiticides - with strong repellency action to deter the termites - these termiticides may not be a good choice because the termites can randomly attack homes by finding a break in the defense barrier. The repellent pesticides are Cypermethrin, Fenvelrate, Permetrhin and Chlorpyriphos.

Chlorpyriphos appears to have an intermediate level of repellency. The wet termiticide may act as a repellent to subterranean termites through vapour action until it has had ample time to dry.

Non-repellent termiticidesThe Non-repellent germicides are Bifenthrin, Imidacloprid and Fipronil. The termites do not detect the presence of non-repellent termiticides and tunnel directly into the treated portion resulting in termite mortality.

In view of this and since our aim is to completely eradicate the termite colony for say 5 to 10 years it is suggested that we use the Non-repellent termiticides.

Liquid treatments using a pesticide called a "termiticide" (because it kills termites) work by trying to create a barrier around your house with chemicals, so that termites can't pass and come in to start a colony.

The main reasons that a liquid version is normally used because it works immediately, it is cheap and the chemicals will linger in the soil killing termites for several years.

However, many of the older products are not really recommended anymore. Chemicals will be in the ground near your house, and they can leak into water supplies or deposits. Many older chemicals are now considered environmentally unsafe, so you have to be careful about what which one you use.

The next generation pesticides are as under:

There are three basic kinds of liquid pesticides used on termites:

BIFLEX – The chemical available through Biflex and the chemical is Bifenthrin-2.5% EC. Biflex 2.5% marketed by FMC India Private Ltd.

Biflex is the most advance development in today's growing world of termiticides and is the result of years of intense efforts of scientists of FMC Corporation, (USA) – the global leader in termiticide chemistry.

Advantages of Biflex TC:

Biflex TC provides double action protection, it creates a repellent barrier and kills active termites.

Biflex TC is a safe and environment friendly product. It has an extremely low leaching potential. The oral LD50 for Biflex TC is 1657mg/kg.

Biflex TC is insoluble in water and binds strongly to surface/soil. It is not carried away by rain, sprinkling or irrigation.

Biflex TC offers the longest protection period and that too at the lowest dosage.


Biflex TC has got a very high soil stability i.e. is less affected by soil acidity, UV light and soil moisture.


Biflex TC is non-systemic i.e. garden plants and other vegetation does not move the chemical away from the treated area.

RABID 5% EC– The chemical available through Rabid is Fipronil. It is available through Bayer Crop Sciences Ltd.

Fipronil has a different mode of action than many common insecticides. It is “an extremely active molecule.” In insects, it disrupts the nerves in the brain and spinal cord by interfering with the ability of these nerve cells to nerve impulses. The result is uncontrolled activity leading to death of the insect. Fipronil also disrupts nerves in animals other than insects, including humans, but it does not bind as tightly to these nerve cells as it does to insect nerve cells.

TERMEX 350 EC – The chemical available through Termex is Imidacloprid.

Termex 3.50% EC available through Rallies India.

It is based on Imidaclorprid, the latest and fastest growing molecule with lethal action on termites. Termex keeps your homes termite free.


Indigenously developed, manufactured & marketed by Rallis, a trusted name in Pesticides for the last 5 decades. A non-repellent systemic & contact Termiticide.


Depending on soil moisture, spreads in all direction by a process called 'Lateral Soil Movement', ensuring thorough soil coverage with no gaps.


A water based formulation and has no volatile solvents. It offers long duration control.


No smell,pollutionor contamination of underground/well water. Completely safe, having low toxicity towards people & pets.

Ensures nil or minimal re-treatments (<1.0%) during the first five years if treatment is carried out as per recommendation.

Approved by CIB, the regulatory body for control of termites in buildings.

IMICON 17.8% EC – The chemical available through Imicon 17.80 is is Imidacloprid. Imicon 17.80% EC is available through Hyderabad Chemicals Ltd.

TATA MIDA 17.80 SL - The chemical available through Tatamida SL is Imidacloprid. Tatamida is available through Rallies India.

These three chemicals are much safer environmentally. These chemicals create a non-detectable treated zone that functions as a "killing field" and not a repellent zone / barrier.

These are designed to kill termites (whereas older chemicals were designed to repel them). However, it is more expensive than other liquid treatments. If you plan to use a liquid treatment, this is the one which is recommended, because it kills termites by trying to create a barrier around your house with chemicals, so that termites cannot pass it and come in to start a colony. These chemicals kill termites in the higher concentration treated soil areas and termites that forage in the lower concentrated treated soil areas become disorientated, stop feeding and are fatally diseased by entomopathogenic micro-organisms in the soil. It has several advantages compared to the traditional liquid termiticides. The quantity used is a few liters against hundreds of liters of the earlier verities.

What is the recommended dose to be used?

Bifenthrin - 2.5% EC – Biflex at 2.5 % EC concentration recommended is 1.0 liter with 475 liter water (0.50 ml in 1 liter) for both pre and post construction treatment.


                            - TERMEX 350 SC at 30.5% SC concentration recommended is 1.0 liter with 475 liter water (0.50 ml in 1 liter) for both pre and post construction treatment.

                           - TATA MIDA 17.80 SL at 17.80 EC concentration recommended is 1.0 Liter with 475 liter water (0.50 ml in 1 liter) for both pre and post construction treatment.

                           - IMICON 17.8. % EC at 17.80 EC concentration recommended is 1.0 Liter with 475 liter water (0.50 ml in 1 liter) for both pre and post construction treatment.

What is the method for pre-construction treatment?

Treatment for Masonry Foundations and Basements:

This treatment is for masonry foundations where there are void in the joints through which termites are able to seek entry into buildings.

Treat bottom surface and the sides of the foundation pits / excavations up to a height of about 30 cm with 0.075% solution of BIFLEX /TERMEX 350 SC/ TATA MIDA 17.80 SL/IMICON 17.8.% EC @ 5 L / m2 of surface area. Refill earth.

After completing the masonry foundation, the backfill in immediate contact with the foundation structure is treated. Apply termiticide at the recommended concentration @ 7.5 L / m2 of the vertical surface of the sub-structure for each side.

Treatment can be done as the backfill is being replaced or if this is not possible, treat the outside foundation soil after all grading is completed by digging a trench 15 cm wide and about 30 cm deep.

The trench should angle towards the foundation. If the footing is more than 30 cm below the surface, the soil must be trenched or trenched and ridded to a minimum of 120 cm but not to exceed the footing.

When the soil is replaced in the trench, it must also be treated. If water is used for ramming the earth fill, the chemical treatment can be carried out after the ramming operation is done by rodding the earth at 15 cm intervals close and parallel to the wall surface and spraying the chemical at the above dosage. After the treatment, the treated soil should be tamped in place.

Treatment Under slabs:

Before laying the slab on the floor, the top of the consolidated earth should be treated with the solution @ 5 L / m2. The treated soil must not be disturbed between the time of application and lying of slab on the floor.

If the filled earth has been well rammed and the surface does not allow the termiticide solution to seep through, holes up to 5 to 7.5 cm deep, 12 mm diameter at 15 cm intervals may be made to facilitate saturation of the soil with the chemical.

Treatment of External perimeter / under the apron:

If the refill earth was not treated, after the completion of building, the earth along the external perimeter of the building should be drilled with a 10-15 mm bit at 15 cm interval to a depth of 30 cm to expose the foundation wall surface. The solution should be poured along the wall @ 7.5 L / m2 of the vertical surface and the earth tamped back into place.

Treatment for RCC Foundations and Basement:

In the case of RCC foundations, the concrete is dense being a 1:2:4 (cement: fine aggregates: coarse aggregates by volume) mix or richer, which the termites are unable to penetrate. Therefore, it is unnecessary to start the treatment from the bottom of excavations. The treatment shall start at a depth of 50 cm below the ground level except when such ground level is raised or lowered by filling or cutting after the foundations have been cast. In such cases, the depth of 50 cm shall be determined from the new soil level resulting from the filling or cutting mentioned above. The soil in immediate contact with the vertical surfaces of RCC foundations shall be treated at the rate of 7.5 L / m2. The other details are similar to the treatment of masonry foundation.

What is the method of post-construction treatment of buildings with BIFLEX /TERMEX 350 SC/ TATA MIDA 17.80 SL/IMICON 17.8. % EC ? 


Before undertaking any type of treatment, a thorough inspection should be made of the infestation in the building with a view to determine the extent of infestation and the routes of entry of termites into the building.

Post-construction treatment is carried out in a thorough manner, to eliminate termites in their hideouts. All traces of termite tubes should be removed so that any fresh infestation, which might occur at a later date, may be easily detected.

For the existing buildings, soil treatment along the external perimeter is recommended and should be done as follows:

Treatment of External perimeter / along outside of foundations: The soil in contact with the external wall of the building should be treated with solution @ 7.5 L / m2 of vertical surface of the sub-structure to depth of 30 cm. To facilitate this treatment, a shallow channel can be excavated along and close to the wall and treated @ 1.75 L / running meter of the channel. Rodding with 12 mm diameter mild steel rods at 15 cm interval to a depth of 30 cm can be done in the channel if necessary for uniform dispersal of the chemical. The balance 0.5 L / running meter should then be used to treat the backfill earth as it is returned to the channel directing the spray toward the wall surface.

If there is a concrete or masonry apron around the building, approximately 12 mm diameter holes should be drilled as close as possible to the plinth wall 30 cm apart, deep enough to reach the soil below, and the solution pumped into these holes to soak the soil below at the rate of 2.25 L / linear meter. To prevent entry of termites from cracks: The soil under the floor should be treated. Drill 12 mm holes at 30 cm interval at the junction of floor and wall up to the depth of 30 cm. Squirt the solution into these holes using a hand operated pressure pump until refusal or to a maximum of 1 L per hole. The holes are sealed after the treatment.

Restricting the movement of termites through masonry walls:

This is done by drilling 12 mm holes at 30 cm interval in masonry wall at plinth level at about 45˚ angle on both the sides of the wall and squirting the solution in holes till refusal and then sealing the holes.

This treatment can also be extended to internal walls having foundations in the soil.

What is the method of treatment if termites damage only the upper floors of the buildings?
Soil is the main source for termite attack in any portion of the building. Hence the method recommended under post-construction treatment would help prevent termite attack in upper floors as well.


Do soil characteristics influence degradation?

Soil pH, moisture, temperature and pesticide concentrations are the most important factors affecting the persistence of termiticides in the soil.

Does the floor have to be drilled from inside during termite treatment of post-construction of buildings?

No, in most cases treatment is carried out on the full exterior or where infestation is located. But in some cases it may be necessary to drill an area of floor where termites are identified to stop the damage immediately.

What is to be done for termite mounds in the close vicinity of buildings?
Termite mound is destroyed by pouring the solution into the mounds at several places after breaking open the structure. To facilitate good penetration, make holes using crowbars. The quantity to be used will depend upon the size of the mound. For a mound volume of about 1 m3, 4 L of the termiticide solution may be used.

What is the spray equipment recommended for the treatments?

For spraying - a suitable hand operated compressed air sprayer is recommended. On large jobs, a power sprayer may be used to save labour and time.

What are the precautionary measures to be adopted to avoid environmental hazards?

Do not carry out termite treatment when it is raining.Application near and around wells and cisterns should be avoided. If possible, all pipes coming from the well into the structure should be exposed before the termiticide application begins.

The treated backfill method must be used, which is done as follows: 

Trench and remove soil to be treated onto heavy plastic sheeting or similar material or into a wheelbarrow. Treat the soil at the concentration of 0.075 @ 7.5 L / m2 of the vertical surface of the trench. Mix thoroughly into the soil taking care to contain the runoff or spillage. After the treated soil has absorbed the solution, replace the soil into the trench.

Never plant edible plants in the termite treated zones.

Care should be taken to avoid exposing wildlife to direct applications of Imidacloprid.

Imidacloprid is considered highly toxic to bees and should not be applied to vegetation when bees are foraging.

While only slightly toxic to fish, Imidacloprid is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates. Extreme care should be taken to avoid run-off and possible adverse effects to aquatic invertebrates.

As with any pesticides, products containing Imidacloprid should be used according to label directions and should be kept out of streams, lakes and other aquatic habitats of concern.

How long will effective concentration persist in the soil when used in termite control?

Study of actual use conditions, has indicated that Imidacloprid, the active ingredient, remained active throughout a 10 year period following the initial treatment under varied technical skills of application, climatic conditions, soil compositions and building construction types.

Availability of the active ingredient seems dependent on the material to which it was applied. Studies have shown that Imidacloprid is much more available to the termites when applied to soil as opposed to wood or paper.Termites exposed to residual concentrations of Imidacloprid (even as low as

1.0 ppm) in the soil over a 5-year period study displayed significantly reduced activity.
Apart from "Lateral Soil Movement", colony contamination by the active ingredient appears to be by termites, which come into contact with the material and are able to pick up a dose of the chemical and distribute it to other colony members.

The soil pH is known to have a major impact on performance of termiticides because it affects how rapidly a compound degrades. Most soils have pH values between 4 and 8. In general, termiticides used today persist longer in acidic soil than in alkaline soil. Laboratory studies have indicated that Imidacloprid at termiticidal application rates degraded at much slower rates under constant temperature of 250 C and soil moisture had no effect on the degradation of imidacloprid.Degradation is more rapid in soils with ground cover compared to bare soil. However, analysis of database of real-world situation of Imidacloprid as termiticide used to protect the buildings has indicated that long-term residual activity was more persistent in covered areas than in exposed areas of the buildings. The active ingredient, Imidacloprid is moderately soluble in water, is moderately adsorbed by soil and has a moderate to long half-life in soil.

What are the recommended handling and storage condition?

Keep out of reach of children.

Store in original labeled container/s in a cool, well ventilated premises away from space meant for storing articles such as food, feed etc. The containers should be kept securely closed.

Do not store for prolonged periods in direct sunlight.

What are the precautions to be taken while handling.

Having an understanding of the toxicity of the product and the potential for personal exposure allows risk to be lowered. However toxic a termiticide is, following all the mandatory safety precautions can minimize risk.
Though these chemicals are oil/water-based formulation with no solvent and does not leave behind any odour, adequate ventilation is still recommended when treatment is carried out indoors.

Observe all mandatory safety precautions of handling termiticide such as:

Applicators should use long-sleeved shirt, long pants, washable hat, and elbow length clean rubber gloves, facemask, protective eyewear, socks and shoes.

Store in original labeled container/s in a cool, well ventilated premises away from space meant for storing articles such as food, feed etc. The containers should be kept securely closed.Avoid mixing the chemical with bare hands.


Avoid inhaling spray mist.

If clothes get contaminated with the product or wet with spray, remove clothes immediately.

Wash hands and exposed parts of the body after completion of work.

After each day's use, wash gloves and work clothing.

Avoid eating, drinking and smoking while handling pesticides.

Do not contaminate food, seeds and grain meant for human and animal consumption.